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Latimer also did not come up with the first screw socket for the light bulb or the first book on electric lighting. Decades before that, the Spaniard Francisco Romero carried out the first successful pericardial surgery of any type, incising the pericardium to drain fluid compressing the heart.
Air Brake -- Air Conditioner -- Airship -- Automatic Coupler -- Automatic Lubricator -- Automatic Transmission -- Bicycle Frame -- Blood Bank -- Blood Plasma -- Cellular Phone -- Clock or Watch -- Clothes Dryer -- Dustpan -- Egg Beater -- Electric Trolley -- Elevator -- Fastest Computer -- Filament for Light Bulb -- Fire Escape -- Fire Extinguisher -- Food Additives -- Fountain Pen -- Gas Mask -- George W.Carver -- Golf Tee -- Hairbrush -- Halogen Lamp -- Handstamp -- Heart Surgery -- Heating Furnace -- Horseshoe -- Ice Cream -- Ironing Board -- Laser Cataract Surgery -- Lawn Mower -- Lawn Sprinkler -- Lubricator -- Mailbox -- Mop -- Paper Punch -- Peanut Butter -- Pencil Sharpener -- Perm Machine -- Postmark/Cancel Mach. The first known traffic signal appeared in London in 1868 near the Houses of Parliament.-- Printing Press -- Propeller for Ship -- Railway Telegraph -- "Real Mc Coy" -- Refrigerator -- Refrigerated Truck -- Rotary Engine -- Screw Socket -- Smallpox Vaccine -- Smokestack -- Steam Boiler -- Street Sweeper -- Supercharger -- Third rail -- Toilet -- Toilet (Railcar) -- Traffic Signal -- Tricycle -- Turn Signals -- Typewriter -- Washington DC city plan -- Invented by Garrett A. Designed by JP Knight, it featured two semaphore arms and two gas lamps. Robertson of the US army preserved blood in a citrate-glucose solution and stored it in cooled containers for later transfusion. By the mid-1930s the Russians had set up a national network of facilities for the collection, typing, and storage of blood.The earliest traffic lights include Lester Wire's two-color version set up in Salt Lake City circa 1912, James Hoge's system (US patent #1,251,666) installed in Cleveland by the American Traffic Signal Company in 1914, and William Potts' 4-way red-yellow-green lights introduced in Detroit beginning in 1920. Bernard Fantus, influenced by the Russian program, established the first hospital blood bank in the United States at Chicago's Cook County Hospital in 1937.New York City traffic towers began flashing three-color signals also in 1920. The invention of the gas mask predates Morgan's breathing device by several decades. Research by Barry Mackintosh, who served as bureau historian for the National Park Service (which manages the G. Carver National Monument), demonstrated the following: " arose to distinguish Elijah's inventions from cheap imitations? The oil cup, which automatically delivers a steady trickle of lubricant to machine parts while the machine is running, predates Mc Coy's career; a description of one appears in the May 6, 1848 issue of . It was Fantus who coined the term "blood bank." [return to top]Did Charles Drew "discover" (in about 1940) that plasma could be separated and stored apart from the rest of the blood, thereby revolutionizing transfusion medicine? The possibility of using blood plasma for transfusion purposes was known at least since 1918, when English physician Gordon R. In the mid-1930s, John Elliott advanced the idea, emphasizing plasma's advantages in shelf life and donor-recipient compatibility, and in 1939 he and two colleagues reported having used stored plasma in 191 transfusions. Pierre-Charles L'Enfant created the layout of Washington DC.Garrett Morgan's cross-shaped, crank-operated semaphore was not among the first half-hundred patented traffic signals, nor was it "automatic" as is sometimes claimed, nor did it play any part in the evolution of the modern traffic light. Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in 1854 and the physicist John Tyndall in the 1870s, among many other inventors prior to World War I. The automatic "displacement lubricator" for steam engines was developed in 1860 by John Ramsbottom of England, and notably improved in 1862 by James Roscoe of the same country. Charles Drew was not responsible for any breakthrough scientific or medical discovery; his main career achievement lay in supervising or co-supervising major programs for the collection and shipment of blood and plasma. Banneker assisted Andrew Ellicott in the survey of the federal territory, but played no direct role in the actual planning of the city.
[return to top]George Washington Carver (who began his peanut research in 1903)? Peanuts, which are native to the New World tropics, were mashed into paste by Aztecs hundreds of years ago. Kellogg, of cereal fame, secured US patent #580787 in 1897 for his "Process of Preparing Nutmeal," which produced a "pasty adhesive substance" that Kellogg called "nut-butter." [return to top]"Discovered" hundreds of new and important uses for the peanut? The "hydrostatic" lubricator originated no later than 1871. The story of Banneker reconstructing the city design from memory after L'Enfant ran away with the plans (with the implication that the project would have failed if not for Banneker) has been debunked by historians.
Evidence of modern peanut butter comes from US patent #306727 issued to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec in 1884, for a process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts reached "a fluid or semi-fluid state." As the product cooled, it set into what Edson described as "a consistency like that of butter, lard, or ointment." In 1890, George A. Louis, manufactured peanut butter and sold it out of barrels. [return to top]Lewis Latimer invented the carbon filament in 1881 or 1882? English chemist/physicist Joseph Swan experimented with a carbon-filament incandescent light all the way back in 1860, and by 1878 had developed a better design which he patented in Britain.
On the other side of the Atlantic, Thomas Edison developed a successful carbon-filament bulb, receiving a patent for it (#223898) in January 1880, before Lewis Latimer did any work in electric lighting.
From 1880 onward, countless patents were issued for innovations in filament design and manufacture (Edison had over 50 of them). Williams repaired a wound not in the heart muscle itself, but in the sac surrounding it, the pericardium.
Neither of Latimer's two filament-related patents in 18 were among them, nor did they make the light bulb last longer, nor is there reason to believe they were adopted outside Hiram Maxim's company where Latimer worked at the time. This operation was not the first of its type: Henry Dalton of St.
(He was not hired by Edison's company until 1884, primarily as a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigations). Louis performed a nearly identical operation two years earlier, with the patient fully recovering.